Infection Control Basics | Infection Control (2023)

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What are the 5 basic principles for infection control? ›

  • Hand Hygiene. Hand hygiene is the most important measure to prevent the spread of infections among patients and DHCP. ...
  • Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette. ...
  • Sharps Safety. ...
  • Safe Injection Practices. ...
  • Sterilization and Disinfection of Patient-Care Items and Devices. ...
  • Environmental Infection Prevention and Control.

What are the basic infection control measures? ›

Standard precautions consist of the following practices: hand hygiene before and after all patient contact. the use of personal protective equipment, which may include gloves, impermeable gowns, plastic aprons, masks, face shields and eye protection. the safe use and disposal of sharps.

How to break the chain of infection answers? ›

Break the chain by cleaning your hands frequently, staying up to date on your vaccines (including the flu shot), covering coughs and sneezes and staying home when sick, following the rules for standard and contact isolation, using personal protective equipment the right way, cleaning and disinfecting the environment, ...

What are the 3 methods of infection control? ›

Infection control standard, contact, droplet and airborne precautions.

What are four 4 examples of infection control? ›

Strategies include hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, cleaning, and appropriate handling and disposal of sharps. These are a first-line approach to infection prevention and control in health service organisations and are routinely applied as an essential strategy for minimising the spread of infections.

What are the 4 types of precautions? ›

Each kind of transmission-based precaution is dependent on the type of infection or pathogen the patient or source has, as outlined as follows:
  • Contact precautions: ...
  • Bloodborne precautions: ...
  • Droplet precautions: ...
  • Airborne precautions:

What is the first step in infection control? ›

The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

What are the 4 types of infections? ›

Infectious diseases can be viral, bacterial, parasitic or fungal infections. There's also a rare group of infectious diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

What is the summary of infection control? ›

Infection control prevents or stops the spread of infections in healthcare settings. This site includes an overview of how infections spread, ways to prevent the spread of infections, and more detailed recommendations by type of healthcare setting.

What are the 4 routes of transmission? ›

The mode of transmission can include direct contact, droplets, a vector such as a mosquito, a vehicle such as food, or the airborne route.

What are the 6 chains of infection? ›

The 6 points include: the infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, and susceptible host. The way to stop germs from spreading is by interrupting the chain at any link.

What is the most effective way to prevent infection? ›

Use soap and water or an alcoholbased hand rub to clean your hands. It only takes 15 seconds to practice hand hygiene. to practice hand hygiene. Your doctors and nurses should practice hand hygiene every time they enter your room.

What are three 3 sources of infection? ›

How Infections Spread
  • Source: Places where infectious agents (germs) live (e.g., sinks, surfaces, human skin)
  • Susceptible Person with a way for germs to enter the body.
  • Transmission: a way germs are moved to the susceptible person.

What are 5 examples of infection? ›

Quick Links
  • Campylobacter Infection.
  • Hepatitis A.
  • Hepatitis B.
  • Hepatitis C.
  • Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)
  • Influenza (Flu)
  • Measles.
  • Meningococcal Disease.

What are the top 4 ways to prevent an infectious disease? ›

As well as maintaining good general health, there are some basic actions that everyone can take to stop the spread of infectious diseases:
  • Immunise against infectious diseases.
  • Wash and dry your hands regularly and well.
  • Stay at home if you are sick.
  • Cover coughs and sneezes.
  • Clean surfaces regularly.
  • Ventilate your home.
Apr 5, 2022

What are the 3 basic precautions and practices? ›

  • Hand hygiene1.
  • Gloves. ■ Wear when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, mucous membranes, nonintact skin. ...
  • Facial protection (eyes, nose, and mouth) ■ ...
  • Gown. ■ ...
  • Prevention of needle stick and injuries from other.
  • Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette.
  • Environmental cleaning. ■ ...
  • Linens.

What 4 PPE is used for standard precautions? ›

Personal protective equipment (PPE) to carry out Standard Precautions includes: gowns, masks, eye protection, face shield (if splashes or sprays of blood or body fluids is likely).

What are the 10 standard infection control precautions? ›

There are 10 elements of SICPs:
  • patient placement/assessment of infection risk.
  • hand hygiene.
  • respiratory and cough hygiene.
  • personal protective equipment.
  • safe management of the care environment.
  • safe management of care equipment.
  • safe management of healthcare linen.
  • safe management of blood and body fluids.

What is the simplest level of infection control? ›

Importance of hand hygiene

Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of reducing the prevalence of HAIs and the spread of antimicrobial resistance13,2023.

What are the 5 stages of infection in order? ›

The stages of infection are incubation, prodromal, illness, stage of decline, and convalescence.

What are the 3 phases of infection process? ›

The different phases in infections include: Infective period. Communicability period. Incubation period.

What are five types of germs? ›

Microbial diversity is truly staggering, yet all these microbes can be grouped into five major types: Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and Protists.

What are the top 3 infections? ›

Most Common Infectious Diseases in the U.S.
  • Chlamydia. 1/15. This sexually transmitted disease affects men and women. ...
  • Influenza A and B. 2/15. Sudden fever and chills, muscle aches, headache, tiredness, sore throat, congestion. ...
  • Staph. 3/15. ...
  • E. Coli. ...
  • Herpes Simplex 1. 5/15. ...
  • Herpes Simplex 2. 6/15. ...
  • Shigellosis. 7/15. ...
  • Syphilis. 8/15.
Jan 29, 2022

What are the top 3 infectious diseases? ›

The world's deadliest infections, including Tuberculosis, Malaria and HIV/AIDS, have been considered as the "Big Three" infectious diseases (BTIDs).

What is the chain of infection? ›

The chain of infection is the process by which a pathogen spreads from one host to the next. This process has six steps: Infectious pathogen, reservoir, the portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, and susceptible host. The infectious pathogen is the actual virus or bacteria that is being spread.

How do you break a chain of infection? ›

Break the chain by cleaning your hands frequently, staying up to date on your vaccines (including the flu shot), covering coughs and sneezes and staying home when sick, following the rules for standard and contact isolation, using personal protective equipment the right way, cleaning and disinfecting the environment, ...

What are the methods of infection? ›

The main routes that infection enters the body are through the air, through touch, through bodily fluids, through ingestion or through bites from other living creatures.

What are the 3 major portals of entry for disease? ›

Inhalation (via the respiratory tract) Absorption (via mucous membranes such as the eyes) Ingestion (via the gastrointestinal tract)

What is the main route to spread infection? ›

Direct contact spread

Some infections can be spread by direct contact with the infected area to another person's body, or via contact with a contaminated surface. This is the most common route of cross-infection from one person to another (transmission of infection).

What are the two kinds of transmission? ›

Direct contact transmission occurs when there is physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person. Indirect contact transmission occurs when there is no direct human-to-human contact.

Who is most at risk of infection? ›

Older adults are at highest risk of getting very sick from COVID-19. More than 81% of COVID-19 deaths occur in people over age 65. The number of deaths among people over age 65 is 97 times higher than the number of deaths among people ages 18-29 years.

What do nurses do to prevent infections? ›

Proper use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, masks, gowns), aseptic technique, hand hygiene, and environmental infection control measures are primary methods to protect the patient from transmission of microorganisms from another patient and from the health care worker.

How do you break the chain of portal of entry? ›

Breaking the Chain: Protect Portals of Entry
  1. Wearing proper PPE when you are knowingly exposed to a pathogen. Masks, gloves, face shields, etc.
  2. Practicing hand hygiene consistently. ...
  3. Isolating those who are infectious and minimizing contact.
  4. Filtering or changing the flow of air.

How does a hospital break the chain of infection? ›

Standard Precautions for All Patient Care

Execute hand hygiene. Make use of personal protective equipment (PPE) when exposure to infection is possible. Observe respiratory hygiene (cough etiquette) Practice proper patient placement.

How do you break the chain of infection in medical asepsis? ›

Medical asepsis (clean technique) all practices that reduce the dumber, growth, transfer and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. They include hand washing, bathing, cleaning environment, gloving, gowning, wearing mask, hair and shoe covers, disinfecting articles and use of antiseptics.

How do you break the chain of infection for salmonella? ›

Wash hands after using the bathroom and changing diapers, and before handling or eating any food. Make sure that persons with diarrhea, especially children, wash their hands carefully and frequently with soap to reduce the risk of spreading the infection.

What are the two 2 modes of transmission of infectious diseases? ›

In healthcare settings, pathogenic microorganisms are acquired mainly through contact, droplet or airborne transmission (Table A. Modes of transmission). Contact is a common mode of transmission in health care, usually via touch or contact with blood or body substances.

What are the portals of entry? ›

The portals of entry are mucosal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cutaneous.

How do you break the portal of exit? ›

For example, nose and throat discharges can exit a human carrier when they sneeze. Other examples of exit portals are blood, saliva, feces, and so on. This link can be broken by avoiding coughing and sneezing into the hands or onto surfaces, but to the elbow instead.

What is the chain of infection for a CNA? ›

The links in the chain of infection include Infectious Agent, Reservoir, Portal of Exit, Mode of Transmission, Portal of Entry, and Susceptible Host: Infectious Agent : Microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that can cause infectious disease.

What is the most important means of breaking the chain of infection? ›

Hand washing thoroughly with soap and water is one of the best ways to prevent you or someone you know from getting infected. Washing your hands frequently helps to remove potentially harmful microorganisms from your hands which helps stop the spread of infection.

Which 3 things should be done to break the chain of infection? ›

Break the chain by cleaning your hands frequently, staying up to date on your vaccines (including the flu shot), covering coughs and sneezes and staying home when sick, following the rules for standard and contact isolation, using personal protective equipment the right way, cleaning and disinfecting the environment, ...

Why should you not turn your back on a sterile field? ›

Sterile fields must always be kept in sight to be considered sterile. Sterile fields must always be kept in sight throughout entire sterile procedure. Never turn your back on the sterile field as sterility cannot be guaranteed.

What are the 4 techniques of medical asepsis? ›

According to The Joint Commission, there are four chief aspects of the aseptic technique: barriers, patient equipment and preparation, environmental controls, and contact guidelines. Each plays an important role in infection prevention during a medical procedure.

What PPE is needed for Salmonella? ›

Personal protective equipment includes but is not limited to laboratory coats or gowns, disposable gloves, and safety glasses. Face shields may be recommended based on risk assessment.

What drug kills Salmonella? ›

Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone are sometimes needed to treat patients with severe Salmonella infections.

Is Salmonella on egg shell or inside? ›

Salmonella can get on the shells of eggs. This can happen when birds lay the eggs and when eggs touch bird droppings (poop) after being laid. Touching eggs from the grocery store is not a major cause of illness because those eggs are washed before they reach stores. Salmonella can get inside eggs too.

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